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RUNNING - page 5

Better Beer Miles with Josh Harris

in ATHLETES/AUSTRALIA/INTERVIEWS/LIFESTYLE/RUNNING/SOS MAGAZINE

 

Tomorrow Josh Harris (@_JoshHarris) will take on the world’s best at the Flotrack Beer Mile World Championships. Having recently run a solo 4:56 personal best as part of a time-trial, Harris enters the competition with a ranking of 8th.
Along with defending World Champ Corey Gallagher (@CoreyGallagher4) and superstar Lewis Kent (@lewiskentmiler), Harris is part of a Trio of SOS athletes who will toe the line in Austin with expectations of the podium.
We caught up with Josh before he headed out from his short stint in Colorado Springs to Texas for the Big Dance.

Walk us through the race this weekend… 

This has been my goal race since I resumed training after the Berlin Marathon (Ran a 10km PB, 29:42 the day before I flew out). I’m spending a few days with some friends at altitude in Colorado Springs before heading into Austin two days before the race. Once the race is finished I’m headed to New York for the first time with Canadian Beer Miler Lewis Kent.15536847_10210897104165065_771214771_o

What are the goals that you’re setting for yourself? 

I think I’m 6th fastest of the guys running the race on Saturday, as i’ve now slipped down to about #8 all time over the past year. I have a list of 5 goals that I would like to achieve in the race, and I would like to tick off as many of these as I can.

  1. Top 3 finish
  2. Sub 4:50
  3. Top 5 finish
  4. PB/AR: 4:56.25 Don’t spew

The Beer Mile is becoming a pretty popular event, what are some tips that the everyday beer miler can incorporate into their training to knock off some time? 

There are a few key strategies some of us use to be successful in the Beer Mile. Apart from some obvious race day tips that are around on the internet I’ll give 3 specific training methods that I have been using to try and maximise my performance:

  1. I have been incorporating beer strides to get some training in after the occasional run. (3 x 60m, beer, 60m, walk back)
  2. Try and build your capacity! I’m smaller than most of the other elite guys, so I do this by drinking some beers, while eating as much as I can. I occasionally fill a beer bottle with water and chug as many of those as I can in a row.15555377_10210906012747774_33107980_o
  3. Do a race simulation before race day. There’s nothing more specific than actually going out and doing one. It doesn’t have to be a full Beer Mile but try and do at least 3 beers, with race pace running. My weakness is not being able to run anywhere near mile pace on lap 2 & 3, which is why I need several practice workouts to get up to speed.

With all the beers available, what do you use on race-day?

To be official the beers need to be at least 355ml (12 oz) and 5% alcohol content, which limits the choices considerably. The easiest beer i’ve had that fits both criteria it the Budweiser Light Platinum. The beer is 6%, but it’s the volume that is the issue in the race, rather than the alcohol content.

You can’t always mix business and pleasure, what is your go-to beer on the off days? 

When I’m drinking casually I love to drink Van Dieman products. They are a local beer from back home in Tasmania and have been a really great supporter. They are a brand doing good things in the Tasmanian community. I really enjoy their Pale Ale, and I would say that it would definitely be my current beer of choice. 

Given that not all Beer Miles are on the track, what footwear will you go for? 

It depends what surface the race is being held on. The Beer Mile is still a somewhat underground event, so they can be held on the track, grass or road. I would wear the same shoe I would race a standard mile in. If the race is on the track I would use the Brooks Wire 4, but if it is road like the Flotrack World Championships I will use the Brooks Hyperion for a fast, lightweight feel.

 

Interview with the Clean Sport Collective

in INTERVIEWS/RUNNING/SOS MAGAZINE/USA

Many sports are currently mired in drug scandals, with track & field currently one of the leading offenders.
Although large-scale reforms are required to address the cascade of problems associated with state-sponsored doping, there is plenty of work that can be done to address the culture of the sport at the grass-roots level.

It is arguably more important than ever that clean athletes demand transparency and trust from the products and supplements they are using. The risk versus reward equation does not exist in this scenario; there is nothing to be gained from products that are not independently tested by approved organisations.

As a company committed to consistent independent testing of our products, SOS spoke to the newly formed Clean Sport Collective about their plans for improving the culture of clean sport.

 

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The Australian Anti-doping authority recently released data showing that 1 in 5 commonly available supplements contained one or more supplements banned in sport. At the same time, WADA states that athletes are strictly liable for any prohibited substances. Many companies have taken the step themselves to be Informed Sport & Informed Choice certified in order to protect athletes. How will a CSC certification compare to this type of regulation?

Cross contamination is an issue both athletes and sports nutrition brands have a responsibility to manage. Athletes are liable for what they put in their bodies. They need to both educate themselves on the substances that are banned and not consume supplements, sports nutrition products that have not been verified as clean. Brands, like SOS has demonstrated, are a solution through getting their products third party testing to ensure the athletes the will not be inadvertently consuming a banned substance through cross contamination. The Clean Sport Certification program we are building for brands will include a category for nutrition, sports nutrition brands. Achieving and maintaining a 3rd party verification from Informed-Choice will be part of the requirements for certification. 

Does CSC intend on assuming a watchdog role by testing products independently, or rather only test products when approached by companies seeking certification?

The CSC will not administer the testing of any products. We encourage all sports nutrition brands to have their products 3rd party tested. There are multiple organizations that offer the service and as SOS we recommend Informed-Choice. 

What is a CSC Technical Advisor?

The Technical Advisor will be the individual handling the Clean Sport Certification process with brands, events and athletes. This person will be the main point of contact throughout the process. This program is in the early stages of being built and currently we are offering the inquiry form to allow organizations and athletes to express their interest. 

What steps are being taken by CSC to ensure that products they certify do not cause an athlete to record a positive test?

Related to sports nutrition brands the Clean Sports Certification program will work alongside Informed-Choice to approve this part of the certification. These type of brands will be required to achieve and maintain this 3rd party verification. Informed-Choice products are tested at LGC, a world renowned sports doping control and research laboratory, with over 50 years of expertise in anti-doping in sport. LGC has been testing for prohibited substances in sport since 2002 and has tested tens of thousands of product/ingredient samples during that time. LGC is currently testing over 5,000 samples per year for over 180 nutrition companies worldwide.

CSC has stated that it wants companies to refuse to work with known dopers. How does this fit with the organisations restorative mission?

To become a brand member of the CSC brands do have to commit they they will not be sponsoring athletes that have previously tested positive. We dot not believe athletes that have previously tested positive should be able to compete alongside athletes that have not. However, we do believe in redemption and believe athletes that have not chosen to compete fairly in sport have the ability to create positive change for the clean sport movement. Many of these athletes are truly apologetic for their actions that negatively affected sport and deserve to be forgiven. Through the Restoration portion we will work alongside 3rd parties to help these athletes move their lives forward and be part of the education on why athletes should not chose to use illegal performance enhancing drugs.  

It appears for obvious reasons that many founding members and brands are either clients of ModCraft or associated with the company. As more competing companies register to be certified, what steps will CSC take to remain impartial in regards to endorsing the products it has certified?

Everyone involved with the Clean Sport Collective is very passionate about being part of the solution and accelerating the conversations for and building the clean sport movement. All of the founding members know each other personally and we encourage others who would like to be involved to please reach out. We’ve already had multiple individuals and organizations express their interest and some are already working with us. Similar to the pioneers in the natural foods movement we feel this is the beginning of creating a powerful collective voice that will achieve meaningful, enduring positive change for clean sport. The more individuals, brands and events involved the more powerful we will become together. 

In regards to the Clean Sport Certification program the individual responsible for the evaluation, the Technical Advisor, will be an outside party brought in with this specific experience. There will be full disclosure of what will be evaluated and this information will be public. At this point no brands, events or athletes have been or are in the process of being certified. This program is in the early stages of being built and currently we are offering the inquiry form to allow organizations and athletes to express their interest. 

What steps will CSC take in regards to industry advocacy, and what are the key outcomes the organisation is seeking to achieve in this regard? 

Industry advocacy is a very critical piece of the clean sport movement. We will work with industry through awareness, education and evaluation. We seek for all sports related brands to publicly commit to clean sport by pledging they will not sponsor athletes that have tested positive.  And, a primary outcome is for all of the brands in this space to have communication surrounding clean sport as part of their annual marketing initiatives. Through the Clean Sport Certification program our goal is to build an evaluation platform for those brands and events looking to have their clean sport efforts externally measured while continually improving their positive impact for clean sport. 

Who are the partners that CSC donations go to?

The partners are third parties and programs that will be funded for specific projects related to our 4 Lanes of Positive Change, Awareness, Drug Testing, Industry Advocacy and Restoration. For example, we will be offering drug testing scholarships to events. We would pay a third party drug testing facility to facilitate it or give the event the funds to pay them. And, partners are not brands. We will be working with member brands to raise donations in order to fund the partners. 

Afternoon tea with Neely

in ATHLETES/INTERVIEWS/RUNNING/SOS MAGAZINE/USA

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Currently based in Boulder, Colorado, Neely Spence-Gracey was 1st American in her debut marathon at Boston earlier this year. She has since capped off 2016 with a PR (2:34:55) and an 8th place finish at the New York City Marathon where she was also 2nd American.

Having trained at both sea level and altitude, do you have a preference? 

I have personally responded really well to training at altitude. I certainly like racing at sea level though! I honestly could train at either place, but for me, the environment is what is most important. Living in Boulder, I am surrounded by people who value an active lifestyle. The culture is what makes such a difference and increases the joy I have while training.

What are some of the key differences you have found between training at altitude as opposed to sea level?

As an elite athlete, I have the ability to adjust my training so I am on a 9-day schedule instead of trying to cram 2 workouts and a long run in every week, I instead of 2 easy days between every hard effort. This allows me to recover between hard sessions, keep my volume higher, and not get over trained. I also have learned to adjust for effort vs having to hit exact paces for every workout. I trust that I know how hard I should push and it has carried over very well to sea level races where I run consistently 15-20sec faster per mile than what I do training at altitude.

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We are what we eat… what are your pre and post run favourites?

I certainly go through phases – before a workout or race, I always have coffee! I only have decaf, or a sports drink on non-workout and race days, so I really look forward to the caffeine to give me a little extra pep in my step! As for post run, my go-to is an egg sandwich.

Your switch from Hanson’s to Steve Magness has seen you run two pretty amazing marathons. What are 3 things that have changed in your training that you believe have made a positive difference?

While running for the Hanson’s, I had no intention of doing a marathon for several years. I had never even run a 10k until I started training under them. So the focus was more on the 5k-10k range, and XC where I was 13th in the world in 2013. I had a lot of success, but after I had knee surgery and my lyme disease flare up, I was really frustrated not to be hitting PRs in these shorter races. I decided I needed a mental rest from chasing times and wanted to pursue something new that I couldn’t compare myself to in the past. At the same time, my husband got a job offer in Colorado that was too good to pass up, so we made the move and I signed up for the Gasparilla Half Marathon. I raced, and finished second to Jen Rhines. I felt amazing running the distance, and qualified for the Olympic Trials with a 1:12.

 

  1. It was just the thing I needed to regain my love of the sport and I started to believe in myself again. After that moment, I started to consider the marathon. I actually continued to train with the 9 day schedule the Hanson’s use, as I felt that I really benefitted from those 2 easy days between hard sessions. It also allows the long run to be more of a workout that is ideal in prepping for longer races. The change is that my workouts are more varied. I am a historian by nature; I have every workout I have done since 8th grade written down in a training log. So repeating workouts can be a huge positive if I have made progress, or very negative if I am comparing too closely. The variety really helps me focus on the present and the task at hand.

 

  1. I am in control of my training. My husband and Steve Magness work together to develop my training plan, but Steve lives in Houston and Dillon is at work during the week, so I am in control of my workouts and of executing them according to plan. They trust me to adjust as needed for conditions, footing, how I am feeling, etc. Sometimes I run a little faster than prescribed, and other times I go off the effort I need to hit despite not meeting the time goals initially laid out.

 

  1. As I mentioned earlier, the culture of Boulder inspires me daily. I grew up spending summers in Boulder when my dad was training as an elite marathoner, so it feels like home to me and living in a place that you’re happy is such an important part of being successful.

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You mentioned on social media after NYC that many lessons were learned. What will be doing different heading into /during your next marathon?

Unfortunately, I experienced the “wall” in the final miles of the NYC marathon. I felt great until mile 21, and then the wheels started coming off. I realized, too late, that I didn’t get in the fuel I needed at mile 18. I plan to work on this for the future and develop a stronger stomach to handle the gels needed for the distance. I am proud of the race I ran, and I know that I have some details to iron out that will allow me to really improve for the future.

It’s starting to get cold, and snow should soon be on the ground in Colorado. How does your training change during the winter? Are you flexible with days and workouts or will you get out the door and get it done no matter what?

Having lived in Michigan for a few years, I am not at all perplexed with the Colorado winters. The sun comes out, and even a few hours of sunshine will make a huge difference with the road conditions. If it is a light snow, I will just wait until 9 or 10am to go run. If it’s a heavier snow, I will utilize the treadmill. I actually prefer workouts on the treadmill to just an easy run because I am more focused and the task of a workout allows the time to pass more quickly.

It is always important to be flexible and adjust as needed for weather conditions. Last spring, while training for Boston, we got hit with a 2-foot snowstorm the weekend of my longest scheduled long run. It also happened to be Easter, and since my husband has an extra day off work, we did a spontaneous trip to Flagstaff in Arizona to get in my long run outside. By the time we got back the roads were clear and I was good to go for the final 2 weeks of training.

 

Watch out for Neely in 2017 and she continues her progress as one of America’s leading female distance runners. You can follow her on Twitter & Instagram @neelysgracey and on her website neelyruns.com

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“I just want to drink beer and train like an animal” – Rod Dixon

in LIFESTYLE/RECOVERY/RUNNING/SOS MAGAZINE

Introduction

There are substantial distinctions between the varying degrees of alcohol consumption, yet a reductionist method is consistently used to describe all use, particularly for athletes. This has been the case since 1948, when a medical investigation into cardiac disease found that alcohol could be beneficial, and whose physicians were prevented from publishing their findings. [i] Many still want to view alcohol with a pre-1948 lens, yet a strong case can now be made that the use of alcohol in athletics is disproportionate to its influence.

The above is highly prevalent in the U.S. collegiate system. In many colleges across America, student-athletes are required to sign clauses that require them to potentially forfeit their eligibility and scholarships if found to be using alcohol during the season. This illustrates the fundamental misunderstanding of a complex issue. For example, a can of just about any beer has more nutritional value than a can of soda, which has zero. In this scenario an athlete would be required to choose the soda if ever presented with such a situation over dinner; perhaps somewhere with awful water… let’s say Los Angeles.

It’s widely recognised that ‘binge-drinking’ is prevalent amongst student-athletes, yet it is still below the campus average and falling. [ii]Moreover, imposing a policy of abstinence does not educate young athletes, nor does it address the science behind addiction. [iii]

i just want to drink beer and train like an animal
i just want to drink beer and train like an animal

An incredibly brief history of time

The evidence for the consumption of alcohol dates back over 10,000 years – a period that 40% of Americans believe to pre-date the beginning of time. [iv]There is also evidence to suggest that early humans grew and stored grain for beer before it was ever used for bread, with the fermentation of the grain and the grape being linked to the development of early civilisation. [v]

Athletic performance and recovery

Acute alcohol consumption has a deleterious effect on a myriad of systems within the body. Severe intoxication has been shown to inhibit the availability of glucose necessary to fuel protein synthesis during muscle recovery. [vi]Alcohol is also a well-known diuretic, which of course leads to dehydration; one of the most consistent impacts across consumption of any amount… more on this later.

However, as with just about any aspect of training, timing and volume is critical. The benefits of resistance training, for example, are well documented – yet the analysis is rarely framed either immediately preceding or following a workout or competition, which is precisely how several studies on alcohol and athletic performance are considered.

Professor Matthew Barnes of Massey University School of Sport and Medicine has stated that he has “Never really seen anything that says [alcohol] is useful for recovery”, and that athletes should opt for water or a sports drink right after a competition. He further exclaims that athletes can consume alcohol, but only “if they must” and after appropriate refuelling, while stating, “Other than the social side of it, I can’t see the benefit to alcohol at all”. [vii]

The assumption that Barnes appears to be operating on is that high-level athletes would consider a Rolling Rock over a recovery drink following a workout, while completely disregarding the positive role alcohol can play in social situations.

The methodology applied to alcohol is rarely used for other potentially toxic substances, with many of the studies on alcohol prefaced with acute use. A college coach would rarely pull an athlete aside for accepting refills of soda with their meal mid-season or the night before a race, or for ordering unlimited fries or deep-fried cheese – all of which can severely affect the endocrine system. [viii] Yet a glass of Central Otago Pinot Noir full of beneficial resveratrol with dinner is strictly forbidden, despite the well known fact that alcohol makes other people less tedious, and food less bland.

This defective pattern of reasoning is also used by athletes to rationalise a poor performance. Alcohol will often be the prime suspect; not diet, stress, or travel. A certain amount of alcohol may compound these factors, but it doesn’t supersede them. More often than not, the perceived influence is likely to be a greatly distorted view of the actual impact.

How we’re wired

No two athletes are the same, yet evidence suggests that a threshold exists at which alcohol becomes detrimental to performance. [ix] Let’s assume that it’s a Sunday night, earlier that day was a big morning of training. You’ve since refuelled, rested, and are posted up ready to burn some brain cells courtesy of Netflix. At this point, a dose of alcohol quiets the brain and reduces the stress response. Stress is bad, so interrupting this pathway is beneficial. However, once blood alcohol levels get to around 0.1% everything starts to change; the brain triggers the release of a cascade of stress hormones, as it is convinced at this point that its in mortal danger. [x]

Would sparkling water be a better option in the above situation? Perhaps, but athletes do not exist in a vacuum, unless of course you’re a Chinese gymnast. The point is, even if someone has an occasional blowout, it makes them no less of an athlete as a bad workout does. A night of intoxication can still yield a net-positive impact across an athlete’s season, just as a bad night’s sleep, or illness still can. We’re biologically adapted to moderate alcohol; it’s part of how we became modern humans. [xi] The net-positive relationship is one that world-famous alcoholic Winston Churchill recognised, “I have taken more out of alcohol than it has taken out of me”, he said.

Another part of what makes us human is differences in how we are wired that are often responsible for ‘binge’ drinking, [xii] a term that encompasses isolated and excessive drinking patterns and is distinct from occasional light or social drinking. Binge drinking is common in a group setting and has been shown to lead to a greater euphoria than drinking the same amount alone, which facilitates more consumption [xiii] and is not uncommon to athletes.

Binge drinking is not beneficial for performance of any kind, with the exception being that on the dance floor. However, it can be a social response to the forbidden nature of alcohol, and the widespread misunderstanding about its use outside of alcoholism. The status quo response is avoidance and abstinence over education; the world’s oldest form of regulation.

Individuals differ in their capacity to exercise judgement and inhibit impulses. In some, an addictive substance such as sugar, which is one of the most addictive substances currently known and has more power to monopolize the reward circuit if the prefrontal cortex is not functioning properly. [xiv] Moreover, antisocial personalities often have deficiencies in prefrontal functioning, with running likely ranking joint first with stamp collecting for percentage of antisocial personalities.

Binge drinking will undoubtedly affect performance in certain ways, but abstinence is not the answer, or any answer for that matter. Research has shown that abstaining from alcohol can increase the risk of dying. Even heavy drinkers are likely to live longer than abstainers. Moderate drinkers have more friends, a higher quality of ‘friend support’ and are also more likely to be married than abstainers; who attempt to forget the brain’s reward pathways rather than rewire them. [xv] Running is hard enough as it is, so doing it with no mates is only going to make it harder.

Thirsty work

As the ever-rational Benjamin Franklin said, “Beer is living proof that God loves us and wants us to be happy.” For every story about an athlete blaming a bad performance on alcohol, you’ll find a more interesting one from someone that indulged in a few the night before an outstanding performance.

The best of course are from Down Under, such as Dick Tayler enjoying two pints with Arthur Lydiard the night before his dramatic win in the 1974 Commonwealth Games 10,000m. The most well known American story doesn’t make quite the same impact, given it involved Steve Prefontaine trapped under his flipped car with a 0.16 BAV.

As marathon legend and exercise physiologist Pete Pfitzinger writes, “Avoiding alcohol is neither realistic nor helpful advice. The real issue is determining how much alcohol you can drink before it has an effect on your running performance.” [i]

Breaking the seal

Alcohol, substances high in protein, caffeine, sugar, salt and even many vegetables are diuretics. Pfitzinger’s rule of thumb is to drink an extra ounce (30mL) of water for each ounce of beer, and 3 ounces (90mL) of water for each ounce of wine consumed. “With this in mind, its best to limit yourself to one or, at the most two beers or one glass of wine the night before a race.” [ii]

Pfitzinger also wraps some reality around Barnes’ findings. “After training or racing, wait until you’re reasonably well rehydrated before enjoying a post-run beer… and right before training or racing, well, lets not go there.” [iii]

Science has since given us an even more effective method that will serve the body well whether or not you’ve had a drink: a glass of water and an electrolyte drink such as SOS Rehydrate, a favourite of many runners. Every night the body loses about half a litre of water through exhalation. [iv] Given that SOS is as effective as an intravenous drip for dehydration, you’ll have a head start for the morning’s glory by absorbing three times more water than water alone, as well as the correct balance of electrolytes. This isn’t to say you should drink any more than Pfitzinger’s recommendations, it’s just going to do a better job of rehydrating the body.

Be smart, but don’t be afraid to rip the head off of a cold one now and then.

Painfully obvious disclaimer: The Runner’s Tribe & SOS Rehydrate does not endorse under-age or irresponsible drinking. Also, if you are going to drink… make it something good. Cheap booze is a false economy. [v]

[i] Pfitzinger, Pete, and Scott Douglas. Advanced Marathoning. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2009. Print.

[ii] Pfitzinger, Pete, and Scott Douglas. Advanced Marathoning. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2009. Print.

[iii] Pfitzinger, Pete, and Scott Douglas. Advanced Marathoning. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2009. Print.

[iv] “Every Night You Lose More Than A Pound While You’re Asleep (For The Oddest Reason).” NPR. NPR, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2016.

[v] Hitchens, Christopher. Hitch-22: A Memoir. New York: Twelve, 2010. Print.

[i] Hitchens, Christopher. “Living Proof.” The Hive. The Hive, 15 Mar. 2003. Web. 27 Sept. 2016.

[ii] Burnsed, Bryan. “Rates of Excessive Drinking among Student-athletes Falling.” Www.ncaa,org. NCAA, 22 July 2014. Web. 27 Sept. 2016.

[iii] News, BBC. “‘Binge-drinking Gene’ Discovered.” BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2016.

[iv] Gallup, Inc. “In U.S., 42% Believe Creationist View of Human Origins.” Gallup.com. N.p., 02 June 2014. Web. 21 Sept. 2016.

[v] Kahn, Jeffrey P. “How Beer Gave Us Civilization.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 16 Mar. 2013. Web. 21 Sept. 2016.

[vi] NatGeo. “Were Humans Built to Drink Alcohol?” Were Humans Built to Drink Alcohol? N.p., 08 Sept. 2016. Web. 27 Sept. 2016.

[vii] Jackson, Devon. “The Truth About the Post-Workout Beer.” Outside Online. N.p., 29 Oct. 2015. Web. 22 Sept. 2016.

[viii] Crain, Esther. “9 Things That Mess With Your Hormones.” Time. Time, 9 Mar. 2004. Web. 27 Sept. 2016.

[ix] Vella, Luke D., and David Cameron-Smith. “Alcohol, Athletic Performance and Recovery.” Nutrients. MDPI, Aug. 2010. Web. 21 Sept. 2016.

[x] Jonah Lehrer. “Why Alcohol Is Good for You.” Wired. Wired, 07 Sept. 2010. Web. 20 Sept. 2016.

[xi] NatGeo. “Were Humans Built to Drink Alcohol?” Were Humans Built to Drink Alcohol? N.p., 08 Sept. 2016. Web. 27 Sept. 2016.

[xii] News, BBC. “‘Binge-drinking Gene’ Discovered.” BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2016.

[xiii] Courtney, Kelly E., and John Polich. “Binge Drinking in Young Adults: Data, Definitions, and Determinants.” Psychological Bulletin. U.S. National Library of Medicine, Jan. 2009. Web. 27 Sept. 2016.

[xiv] Courtney, Kelly E., and John Polich. “Binge Drinking in Young Adults: Data, Definitions, and Determinants.” Psychological Bulletin. U.S. National Library of Medicine, Jan. 2009. Web. 27 Sept. 2016.

[xv] Jonah Lehrer. “Why Alcohol Is Good for You.” Wired. Wired, 07 Sept. 2010. Web. 20 Sept. 2016.

[xvi] Pfitzinger, Pete, and Scott Douglas. Advanced Marathoning. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2009. Print.

[xvii] Pfitzinger, Pete, and Scott Douglas. Advanced Marathoning. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2009. Print.

[xviii] Pfitzinger, Pete, and Scott Douglas. Advanced Marathoning. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2009. Print.

[xix] “Every Night You Lose More Than A Pound While You’re Asleep (For The Oddest Reason).” NPR. NPR, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2016.

[xx] Hitchens, Christopher. Hitch-22: A Memoir. New York: Twelve, 2010. Print.

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